Maintain Construction Excavators for Optimal Performance


Construction sites need excavators to remove rocks, dirt, and debris. They even help in landscaping, material handling, demolition and many other tasks. A well-maintained construction excavator will obviously provide years of constant high-quality service.

For better maintenance of construction excavator, operators need to understand the different kinds and how various parts work, so as to develop as well as execute a maintenance schedule.

Types of excavators used on construction sites

Heavy excavators are available in different configurations. Each one is designed to perform specific purpose like shoveling, compacting, removing the debris and more.

Compact excavator – It is a small wheeled or tracked excavator. A long backfill blade is used with independent boom swing.

Backhoe excavator – It is used daily to remove debris and dirt with the help of bucket fixed on boom and stick.

Long reach excavator – It has a lengthy boom arm, which reaches the building’s upper storeys and so is mainly used in demolition. It replaces the traditional wrecking ball.

Drag-line excavator – It has a bucket suspended from the boom and is powered using electricity or diesel. It is the best option in civil engineering projects and surface mining.

Power shovel – It is applied for digging as well as loading rock and dirt using a bucket, which is powered hydraulically or electrically.

Parts of excavators


House includes many parts that make it operate smoothly. It includes –

  • Boom – There are mono booms, knuckle booms, triple-articulate booms and hinged booms
  • Stick – Forces the bucket to dig. It comes in different lengths
  • Bucket – Mud bucket has different edges ranging from teethed to straight
  • Cab – Cab contains seating for operators and controls to operate the machine
  • Counterweight – Counterweight helps to increase lifting capacity for increased digging force


Undercarriage area includes different parts and equipment like –

  • Gearing blade
  • Track frame
  • Wheels & tracks
  • Hydraulic motor

Centre pin

Excavator’s house is attached to the undercarriage with a centre pin. The excavator is enabled to turn or slew 360° without any difficulty.

Maintaining excavators

Certain areas of construction excavators need to be regularly checked.


Fluids like coolant, oil, and hydraulic are essential for smooth functioning of the equipment. Operator needs to check them regularly to ensure sufficient level. They can even get a service manual from Repairloader, if they do not have one.

  • Engine oil – Engine is kept cool and operation takes place smoothly. If there is an issue with the engine then it can cause overheating, which can damage water pumps and in turn trigger loss of coolant.
  • Coolant system – It helps to vent the produced engine or radiator heat. Engine operates in a cool temperature preventing wear of vital engine parts. Make sure that you allow the radiator to cool, before checking the level of the coolant.
  • Hydraulic fluid – Parts of the hydraulic system like the bucket, broom, and stick gets the necessary force through hydraulic fluid. Fall of hydraulic pressure can cause injury or damage. Therefore check fluid levels, before you turn the equipment on as well as keep track of the pressure levels, while operating.

Check electrical system, cables, as well as tracks and wheels. This can lengthen the excavator’s lifespan as well as safety for people working around and the operator.